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Sutherlandia frutescens – Cancer Bush (seed)

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Sutherlandia frutescens seeds

Postby Mezirg В» 07.03.2020

Scolopendra makes a reappearance in the sequel as well, this time in a swarm as enemies attacking Bayonetta after she enters Inferno.

S utherlandia frutescens L. Lessertia frutescens L. Goldblatt and J. Manning is an indigenous medicinal plant extensively used in South Africa to treat a variety of health conditions. It is a fairly widespread, drought-resistant plant that grows in the Western, Eastern, and Northern Cape provinces and some areas of KwaZulu-Natal, varying in its chemical and genetic makeup across these geographic areas.

Extensive scientific studies are being carried out on the safety, quality, and the efficacy of this medicinal plant to validate the traditional claims, elucidate the bioactive constituents, and conduct clinical trials.

This has resulted in a unique situation in South Africa's history, where traditional knowledge and science intersect to provide insight into this popular plant. This photoessay attempts to illustrate the interlinkage of science with the indigenous knowledge of traditional healers, the local knowledge of people who care for the sick, product development, and innovation agenda of the country as it relates to this plant.

The essay shows how S. The essay explores the plant as botanical entity, its local uses and therapeutic properties, and the science related to ongoing phase IIa and IIb clinical trials.

The Cape Floristic Region one of the richest areas for plants in the world is home to Sutherlandia frutescens. Specifically, Sutherlandia is found in the Fynbos Biome, home to the largest variety of plant species. It was recently proposed that S. However, this proposed reclassification is contentious, requiring more morphological and genetic evidence. Its seedpods are large and balloon-like with a slightly reddish tint Figs. It is a medicinal plant, mostly harvested wild, but it is also grown in community gardens and commercially on a small number of farms.

The plant has more than 25 recorded names. Some are related to the color and shape of the plant's flowers, such as kalkoenbos turkey bush , hoenderbelletjie the wattle of a cockerel , eendjie duckling ; to its seedpods, such as blaasbossie for its balloon-like pods and blaas-ertjie balloon-like pea ; or to the appearance unwele [hair] or taste bitterbos [bitter bush] of its downy leaves.

Many of its names also refer to medicinal use, such as kankerbos cancer bush; Afrikaans , insiswa dispels darkness; Zulu , phetola to change; Tswana , and lerumo lamadi spear of the blood; North Sotho. Sutherlandia frutescens , showing seedpods and flowers. Photo courtesy of Dr. Merlin Willcox November 3, Flowering Sutherlandia frutescens.

In South Africa, Sutherlandia is used by an array of healers, such as herbalists inyanga Fig. First records about its use came from Dutch colonists in the Cape, who probably came to know it through interaction with the local San and Khoi. The aerial parts of the plant stems, leaves, flowers, and pods , the roots, or only the leaves are usually used to make the infusions and decoctions.

A decoction of Sutherlandia is used to wash wounds and the eyes and to reduce fevers, 7 and the infusions from the leaves and stems are used to treat cancers, fever, diabetes, kidney and liver problems, rheumatism, and stomach ailments. Traditional healers prepare the decoctions according to the type of disease indicated by the patient.

Their preparation ranges from using the leaves, flowers, stems, and roots for different ailments. The preparation is then usually infused in hot or boiling water, left to cool, and given to the sick person.

Currently, Sutherlandia is available in various dosage forms, such as capsules and tablets containing Sutherlandia raw material in powdered form , gels for topical application, creams, liquid extracts, and ointments and is found in pharmacies and herbal shops. The therapeutic properties of Sutherlandia are based on its ability to help the human body to mobilize its own immunologic and physiologic resources to help combat diseases and fight mental and emotional stress.

With regard to the anticancer activity of Sutherlandia , studies on the effect of the aqueous extract on cell number, morphology, cell cycle progression, and cell death using MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma and MCFA human nontumorigenic epithelial mammary gland cells have been carried out. A study on the chronic intermittent immobilization stress in adult male Wistar rats fed with aqueous extract of Sutherlandia for 28 days showed a reduction in the corticosterone response to chronic stress.

Sutherlandia also acts as an antidepressant; as a natural treatment for children with convulsions and epilepsy; 17 and as a supportive treatment for mental and emotional stress, including anxiety. The antidiabetic effects of Sutherlandia were observed in animal studies. A study showed that the aqueous extract of Sutherlandia leaf stimulated reverse transcriptase activity in the presence of tannin, whereas no activity was recorded for the HIV-2 protease.

The mechanism of action of S. Various chemical compounds that might be responsible for the activity of Sutherlandia have been isolated. Its close similarity to arginine means it can interfere with arginine metabolism and be incorporated into proteins, leading to the formation of dysfunctional proteins. This compound is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and could explain the use of Sutherlandia for the treatment of stress and anxiety. Other chemical compounds, such as cycloartane glycosides 33 and flavonol glycosides, 34 have recently been isolated from Sutherlandia , which may play a role in the bioactivity of this herbal medicine.

Figure 6 shows a chemical profile of the flavonoid constituents of dried S. Flavonoids have many health-protecting effects, including anticancer and antiviral 35 and antiosteoporotic and anticardiovascular activities 36 and anti-inflammatory and antiallergic, 37 antimicrobial, antiproliferative, chemoprotective, and antioxidant 38 effects, that may explain or support the traditional claims of S.

However, none of the above-mentioned chemical constituents of this plant have been conclusively linked to its therapeutic effect, validating the suggestion that the medicinal potential of Sutherlandia might be as a result of the synergism between the compounds found in the plant. A high-performance liquid chromatography chemical profile of flavonoid constituents of dried Sutherlandia frutescens leaf powder extracted with methanol.

In the last few years, most of the research carried out on S. Researchers have focused on an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system in order to conserve biodiversity. To this effect, several studies have been undertaken on the molecular and genetic modifications of Sutherlandia to regulate and maximize the yield of its bioactive constituents. No serious adverse effects have been reported since ancient times.

However, symptoms such as occasional dry mouth, loose stools, or mild diuresis and slight dizziness have been observed in weak patients when the herb is administered on an empty stomach. Several reports of varying dosages exists in literature.

However, a scientific study recommended daily dose of Sutherlandia leaf powder is 9. Several studies on the interaction between antiretroviral drugs, such as nevirapine and atazanavir, and Sutherlandia extracts and its bioactives have been reported.

The aqueous and methanolic extracts of S. The popularity of herbal medicines has led to increasing concerns over their safety, quality, and efficacy. To this end, clinical trials have been conducted worldwide to ascertain the safety and efficacy of these herbal products using human participants. With regard to S. She observed that when taken with a proper diet, Sutherlandia improves quality of life and might be significant in delaying the need for antiretroviral therapy.

Reports such as this have prompted the funding of two separate trials by the governments of the United States and South Africa to clinically validate the claims of safety and efficacy.

Results of the phase I study have provided evidence of the safety of Sutherlandia in healthy people. This proposed trial aims to determine the safety and the effect of the formulated capsules on the markers of HIV progression in HIV patients. The study also aims to improve understanding of the pharmacokinetics of the formulated Sutherlandia capsules in the patients. Acknowledging the value of indigenous knowledge in South Africa has brought to the fore the issue of protecting it and ensuring that knowledge holders are compensated for their contribution to the development of commercially traded products.

To this end, South Africa is making a lot of effort to protect and encourage indigenous communities to use their natural resources and for its citizens to value traditional knowledge and innovation. However, identifying the ownership of the traditional knowledge of Sutherlandia as an antiviral agent has proved to be difficult. Sutherlandia has a history of medicinal use across several communities in South Africa. Issues raised in this discussion include benefit sharing, bio-prospecting, and intellectual property rights.

This can happen only if the clinical trials show that Sutherlandia is safe, is of good quality, and demonstrates efficacy. At the same time, greater collaboration between traditional health practitioners and scientists enhances insights into the use, preparation, therapeutic possibilities, and pharmaceutical make-up of this plant medicine.

In this way, traditional knowledge and science intersect in new and original ways. Nandi Siegfried and Merlin Willcox for their assistance. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. J Altern Complement Med. Oluwaseyi M. Find articles by Oluwaseyi M. Find articles by Gustav Styger. Find articles by Diana Gibson. Find articles by Gail Hughes.

Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Copyright , Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction S utherlandia frutescens L.

Open in a separate window. Preparation and Use The aerial parts of the plant stems, leaves, flowers, and pods , the roots, or only the leaves are usually used to make the infusions and decoctions. Dried Sutherlandia frutescens plant material ground between stones.

Sangoma preparing dried Sutherlandia stems and leaves. Pharmacology of Sutherlandia frutescens The therapeutic properties of Sutherlandia are based on its ability to help the human body to mobilize its own immunologic and physiologic resources to help combat diseases and fight mental and emotional stress.

Stress A study on the chronic intermittent immobilization stress in adult male Wistar rats fed with aqueous extract of Sutherlandia for 28 days showed a reduction in the corticosterone response to chronic stress.

Neurologic diseases Sutherlandia also acts as an antidepressant; as a natural treatment for children with convulsions and epilepsy; 17 and as a supportive treatment for mental and emotional stress, including anxiety. Diabetes The antidiabetic effects of Sutherlandia were observed in animal studies. HIV A study showed that the aqueous extract of Sutherlandia leaf stimulated reverse transcriptase activity in the presence of tannin, whereas no activity was recorded for the HIV-2 protease.

Chemical Composition The mechanism of action of S. Safety of Sutherlandia No serious adverse effects have been reported since ancient times. Intellectual Property Right Issues Regarding Sutherlandia Acknowledging the value of indigenous knowledge in South Africa has brought to the fore the issue of protecting it and ensuring that knowledge holders are compensated for their contribution to the development of commercially traded products. Conclusion S. Disclosure Statement No competing financial interests exist.

Sutherlandia - garden plants, time: 2:15
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Re: sutherlandia frutescens seeds

Postby Zoloshura В» 07.03.2020

Herbs yield results with Aids patients [homepage on the Internet]. The biochemical effects of Sutherlandia frutescens in cultured H9 frutesecns T cells and normal human T lymphocytes. Dried Sutherlandia frutescens plant material ground between stones.

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Re: sutherlandia frutescens seeds

Postby Dotilar В» 07.03.2020

Shop on Multiple Devices. Product Packaging. Photo courtesy of Dr. Plumeria Seeds.

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Re: sutherlandia frutescens seeds

Postby Junos В» 07.03.2020

Effect of short term and chronic administration of Sutherlandia frutescens on pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in rats. Growing Guidance. External link.

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Re: sutherlandia frutescens seeds

Postby Bakasa В» 07.03.2020

Full Online Catalogue. Plumeria Seeds. The plant supplies sugars for the bacteria, while the bacteria provide the biologically useful nitrogen that the plant absorbs. Corresponding author.

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Re: sutherlandia frutescens seeds

Postby Mazulkis В» 07.03.2020

If you can point us in frutescens right direction A list of South African indigenous plants used as remedies by the colonists of the Cape of Good Hope. Certified Sutherlandia Range. Flavonoids have many health-protecting effects, seeds anticancer and sfeds 35 and antiosteoporotic and anticardiovascular activities 36 and anti-inflammatory and raid remake the, 37 antimicrobial, antiproliferative, chemoprotective, and antioxidant 38 effects, that may explain or support the traditional claims of S.

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