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Ultrafine particle

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Ultrafine particles

Postby Tuzahn В» 11.02.2020

Bronze Statue, The : Book by Crane Johnson.

Ambient particulate matter air pollution PM is one of the top ten causes of illness and death in the world. While PM pollution is worse in many developing countries, it remains a problem in the United States as well.

Many people in the US may not be aware of the magnitude of the problem because the levels of pollution that present a health risk include concentrations that are usually not readily visible.

PM that is less than 2. It is also regulated at the federal level in the US. Because of the deep research base and government regulation that follows from the evidence, PM 2. However, there is rapidly emerging evidence that another type of PM, ultrafine particles, represents an additional distinct and unregulated risk.

Because they are so small, they have very little mass. Thus, whereas PM 2. They also behave differently in the air and are elevated in different patterns in time and across geographic areas. I have been involved with research that is among a growing number of teams that have assessed UFP distribution in urban areas. Because cars are the dominant source of UFP in most urban areas in countries like the US, we have focused on major roadways and highways.

There is, and has been for a while, convincing evidence that UFP levels are substantially elevated next to such roadways on a regular basis. In contrast, PM 2. This is because PM 2. From a health research standpoint, this has made it much easier to study PM 2. People living in a single metropolitan area, for example, will usually have similar PM 2. The same people could, however, have very different UFP exposures, especially if they differ in terms of living or spending time next to a highway.

Just meters away from high volume traffic UFP levels are substantially lower. Much of the challenge of the UFP health research I have been a part of has had to grapple with the fact that their concentration changes rapidly in both space and time while people move into and out of fields of exposure.

The excruciating care required to assign exposure has held back health research on UFP. It is only in the last years that numerous studies showing risks from long term exposure have begun to emerge.

So far findings point particularly at cardiovascular and neurological risks. Because they are so small, UFP act more like gases than particles in the air. Like gasses, they tend to diffuse rather than the way PM 2. This affects strategies to reduce exposure. My collaborators and I like high-quality filters that remove UFP effectively for use in near-highway homes. We also prefer substantial air recirculation since it reduces infiltration into indoor spaces.

Air movement also leads to great deposition from diffusion. Until the research reaches a critical mass and regulations are enacted, we need to continue doing research, educating the public and policy makers about this concern and developing and implementing local interventions to proactively protect highly exposed populations. He directs the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health project, which is a series of studies about ultrafine particles from traffic, their association with cardiovascular health risk and how to reduce exposure and risk.

Most of his work uses a community-based participatory research approach. He has over publications and a deep commitment to seeing research translated into policy and practice. Science Network Voices gives Equation readers access to the depth of expertise and broad perspective on current issues that our Science Network members bring to UCS. The views expressed in Science Network posts are those of the author alone.

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Doujinn
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Re: ultrafine particles

Postby Gardam В» 11.02.2020

High concentrations are associated with many different conditions, such as high humidity, low air movement, increased number of diesel vehicles, seasons, and traffic acceleration after stopping 3. Care Med. Many articles have been published on the brain or neural effects of PM, and there particles a great deal ultrafine animal work on the mechanisms by which PM 0.

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Re: ultrafine particles

Postby Vohn В» 11.02.2020

Metal fume fever is a systemic disease of lung inflammation most likely caused by PM 0. Occupational Medicine. Site Map. Views Click Edit View history.

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