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The chinese silk road

Postby Zuluramar В» 13.04.2020

Funeral services were conducted Monday, September 9, at 11 a.

The Silk Road was a network of trade routes which connected the East and West , and was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century. The Han dynasty expanded the Central Asian section of the trade routes around BCE through the missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy Zhang Qian , as well as several military conquests.

The Silk Road trade played a significant role in the development of the civilizations of China, Korea , [6] Japan , [2] the Indian subcontinent , Iran , Europe, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic relations between the civilizations.

So in addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The Indian portion is on the tentative site list. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative silk , first developed in China [10] [11] and a major reason for the connection of trade routes into an extensive transcontinental network.

However, more recent scholarship has shown that the term was in use at least several decades earlier, and the development of the concept of the Silk Road is now seen as a process where many individuals made significant contributions. The term "Silk Route" is also used. Use of the term 'Silk Road' is not without its detractors. For instance, Warwick Ball contends that the maritime spice trade with India and Arabia was far more consequential for the economy of the Roman Empire than the silk trade with China , which at sea was conducted mostly through India and on land was handled by numerous intermediaries such as the Sogdians.

The southern stretches of the Silk Road, from Khotan Xinjiang to Eastern China, were first used for jade and not silk, as long as BCE , and is still in use for this purpose. The term "Jade Road" would have been more appropriate than "Silk Road" had it not been for the far larger and geographically wider nature of the silk trade; the term is in current use in China.

Central Eurasia has been known from ancient times for its horse riding and horse breeding communities, and the overland Steppe Route across the northern steppes of Central Eurasia was in use long before that of the Silk Road. Significantly, these mines were not very far from the lapis lazuli and spinel "Balas Ruby" mines in Badakhshan , and, although separated by the formidable Pamir Mountains , routes across them were apparently in use from very early times.

Following contacts between Metropolitan China and nomadic western border territories in the 8th century BCE, gold was introduced from Central Asia, and Chinese jade carvers began to make imitation designs of the steppes, adopting the Scythian -style animal art of the steppes depictions of animals locked in combat. This style is particularly reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade and steatite.

The expansion of Scythian cultures, stretching from the Hungarian plain and the Carpathian Mountains to the Chinese Kansu Corridor, and linking the Middle East with Northern India and the Punjab , undoubtedly played an important role in the development of the Silk Road.

Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, and their distinctive triangular arrowheads have been found as far south as Aswan. These nomadic peoples were dependent upon neighbouring settled populations for a number of important technologies, and in addition to raiding vulnerable settlements for these commodities, they also encouraged long-distance merchants as a source of income through the enforced payment of tariffs.

Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia along the Silk Roads as late as the 10th century, their language serving as a lingua franca for Asian trade as far back as the 4th century.

By the time of Herodotus c. By having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages and traverse the length of the road in nine days, while normal travelers took about three months.

The next major step toward the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus — BCE , who extended his control beyond Alexandria Eschate to Sogdiana. There are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan , leading to the first known contacts between China and the West around BCE.

The Greek historian Strabo writes, "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres China and the Phryni. Classical Greek philosophy syncretised with Indian philosophy. This extension came around BCE, with the embassies of the Han dynasty to Central Asia following the reports of the ambassador Zhang Qian [35] who was originally sent to obtain an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu. Zhang Qian visited directly the kingdom of Dayuan in Ferghana , the territories of the Yuezhi in Transoxiana , the Bactrian country of Daxia with its remnants of Greco-Bactrian rule, and Kangju.

He also made reports on neighbouring countries that he did not visit, such as Anxi Parthia , Tiaozhi Mesopotamia , Shendu Indian subcontinent and the Wusun. Others [39] say that Emperor Wu was mainly interested in fighting the Xiongnu and that major trade began only after the Chinese pacified the Hexi Corridor. The Silk Roads' origin lay in the hands of the Chinese. The soil in China lacked Selenium , a deficiency which contributed to muscular weakness and reduced growth in horses.

Even after the construction of the Great Wall, nomads gathered at the gates of the wall to exchange. Soldiers sent to guard the wall were often paid in silk which they traded with the nomads. The Chinese were also strongly attracted by the tall and powerful horses named " Heavenly horses " in the possession of the Dayuan literally the "Great Ionians", the Greek kingdoms of Central Asia , which were of capital importance in fighting the nomadic Xiongnu.

They defeated the Dayuan in the Han-Dayuan war. The Chinese subsequently sent numerous embassies, around ten every year, to these countries and as far as Seleucid Syria. As a rule, rather more than ten such missions went forward in the course of a year, and at the least five or six. These connections marked the beginning of the Silk Road trade network that extended to the Roman Empire. It has been suggested that the Chinese crossbow was transmitted to the Roman world on such occasions, although the Greek gastraphetes provides an alternative origin.

Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy suggest that in 36 BCE,. The Romans may have been part of Antony 's army invading Parthia. Sogdiana modern Bukhara , east of the Oxus River, on the Polytimetus River, was apparently the most easterly penetration ever made by Roman forces in Asia. The margin of Chinese victory appears to have been their crossbows, whose bolts and darts seem easily to have penetrated Roman shields and armour.

Even the rest of the nations of the world which were not subject to the imperial sway were sensible of its grandeur, and looked with reverence to the Roman people, the great conqueror of nations. Thus even Scythians and Sarmatians sent envoys to seek the friendship of Rome. Nay, the Seres came likewise, and the Indians who dwelt beneath the vertical sun, bringing presents of precious stones and pearls and elephants, but thinking all of less moment than the vastness of the journey which they had undertaken, and which they said had occupied four years.

In truth it needed but to look at their complexion to see that they were people of another world than ours. The Han army regularly policed the trade route against nomadic bandit forces generally identified as Xiongnu.

Han general Ban Chao led an army of 70, mounted infantry and light cavalry troops in the 1st century CE to secure the trade routes, reaching far west to the Tarim basin. Ban Chao expanded his conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea and the borders of Parthia. The Silk Roads were a "complex network of trade routes" that gave people the chance to exchange goods and culture.

It extended, via ports on the coasts of India and Sri Lanka , all the way to Roman -controlled ports in Roman Egypt and the Nabataean territories on the northeastern coast of the Red Sea. The earliest Roman glassware bowl found in China was unearthed from a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou , dated to the early 1st century BCE, indicating that Roman commercial items were being imported through the South China Sea.

Harper asserts that a 2nd or 3rd-century Roman gilt silver plate found in Jingyuan , Gansu , China with a central image of the Greco-Roman god Dionysus resting on a feline creature, most likely came via Greater Iran i.

It is true that these coins were found in China, but they were deposited there in the twentieth century, not in ancient times, and therefore they do not shed light on historic contacts between China and Rome.

The Roman Empire inherited eastern trade routes that were part of the Silk Road from the earlier Hellenistic powers and the Arabs. With control of these trade routes, citizens of the Roman Empire received new luxuries and greater prosperity for the Empire as a whole.

Intercontinental trade and communication became regular, organised, and protected by the "Great Powers". Intense trade with the Roman Empire soon followed, confirmed by the Roman craze for Chinese silk supplied through the Parthians , even though the Romans thought silk was obtained from trees.

Notably, Pliny the Elder knew better. Speaking of the bombyx or silk moth, he wrote in his Natural Histories "They weave webs, like spiders, that become a luxurious clothing material for women, called silk. Roman artisans began to replace yarn with valuable plain silk cloths from China and the Silla Kingdom in Gyeongju , Korea. I can see clothes of silk, if materials that do not hide the body, nor even one's decency, can be called clothes Wretched flocks of maids labour so that the adulteress may be visible through her thin dress, so that her husband has no more acquaintance than any outsider or foreigner with his wife's body.

The West Roman Empire, and its demand for sophisticated Asian products, crumbled in the West around the 5th century. The unification of Central Asia and Northern India within the Kushan Empire in the 1st to 3rd centuries reinforced the role of the powerful merchants from Bactria and Taxila.

Byzantine Greek historian Procopius stated that two Nestorian Christian monks eventually uncovered the way silk was made.

From this revelation, monks were sent by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian ruled — as spies on the Silk Road from Constantinople to China and back to steal the silkworm eggs , resulting in silk production in the Mediterranean, particularly in Thrace in northern Greece, [72] and giving the Byzantine Empire a monopoly on silk production in medieval Europe. Roman Empire.

It was closed after the Tibetans captured it in , but in , during Empress Wu 's period, the Silk Road reopened when the Tang reconquered the Four Garrisons of Anxi originally installed in , [87] once again connecting China directly to the West for land-based trade. While the Turks were settled in the Ordos region former territory of the Xiongnu , the Tang government took on the military policy of dominating the central steppe. The Tang dynasty along with Turkic allies conquered and subdued Central Asia during the s and s.

The Tang dynasty established a second Pax Sinica , and the Silk Road reached its golden age, whereby Persian and Sogdian merchants benefited from the commerce between East and West. At the same time, the Chinese empire welcomed foreign cultures, making it very cosmopolitan in its urban centres.

In addition to the land route, the Tang dynasty also developed the maritime Silk Route. The Silk Road represents an early phenomenon of political and cultural integration due to inter-regional trade.

In its heyday, it sustained an international culture that strung together groups as diverse as the Magyars , Armenians , and Chinese.

The Silk Road reached its peak in the west during the time of the Byzantine Empire ; in the Nile- Oxus section, from the Sassanid Empire period to the Il Khanate period; and in the sinitic zone from the Three Kingdoms period to the Yuan dynasty period. Persian Sassanid coins emerged as a means of currency, just as valuable as silk yarn and textiles.

Under its strong integrating dynamics on the one hand and the impacts of change it transmitted on the other, tribal societies previously living in isolation along the Silk Road, and pastoralists who were of barbarian cultural development, were drawn to the riches and opportunities of the civilisations connected by the routes, taking on the trades of marauders or mercenaries.

The Sogdians dominated the East-West trade after the 4th century up to the 8th century, with Suyab and Talas ranking among their main centres in the north. They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia. Their trade, with some interruptions, continued in the 9th century within the framework of the Uighur Empire , which until extended across northern Central Asia and obtained from China enormous deliveries of silk in exchange for horses.

At this time caravans of Sogdians traveling to Upper Mongolia are mentioned in Chinese sources. They played an equally important religious and cultural role. Part of the data about eastern Asia provided by Muslim geographers of the 10th century actually goes back to Sogdian data of the period — and thus shows the survival of links between east and west. However, after the end of the Uighur Empire, Sogdian trade went through a crisis.

What mainly issued from Muslim Central Asia was the trade of the Samanids , which resumed the northwestern road leading to the Khazars and the Urals and the northeastern one toward the nearby Turkic tribes. By the Umayyad era, Damascus had overtaken Ctesiphon as a major trade center until the Abbasid dynasty built the city of Baghdad , which became the most important city along the silk road.

At the end of its glory, the routes brought about the largest continental empire ever, the Mongol Empire, with its political centres strung along the Silk Road Beijing in North China, Karakorum in central Mongolia, Sarmakhand in Transoxiana , Tabriz in Northern Iran, realising the political unification of zones previously loosely and intermittently connected by material and cultural goods.

The Islamic world expanded into Central Asia during the 8th century, under the Umayyad Caliphate , while its successor the Abbasid Caliphate put a halt to Chinese westward expansion at the Battle of Talas in near the Talas River in modern-day Kyrgyzstan. During the early 13th century Khwarezmia was invaded by the Mongol Empire. The Mongol ruler Genghis Khan had the once vibrant cities of Bukhara and Samarkand burned to the ground after besieging them.

The Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent from around to helped bring political stability and re-established the Silk Road via Karakorum and Khanbaliq. It also brought an end to the dominance of the Islamic Caliphate over world trade. Because the Mongols came to control the trade routes, trade circulated throughout the region, though they never abandoned their nomadic lifestyle.

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Re: the chinese silk road

Postby Maura В» 13.04.2020

Sultanhani caravanserai. Pleased with chinese wealth of detail and accuracy of his reports, the emperor sent Zhang Qian on another mission in BC to visit hte neighbouring peoples, establishing early routes from China to Central Asia. Many the influences were transmitted via the Silk Road, particularly silk Central Asia, road HellenisticIranianIndian and Chinese influences could intermix. Ming Pao.

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Postby Tashura В» 13.04.2020

Maritime traders had different challenges to face on their lengthy journeys. Volume 5, Number 1, Summerpp. In its heyday, it sustained an international culture that strung together groups as diverse as the MagyarsArmeniansand Chinese. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley.

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Postby Nikokazahn В» 13.04.2020

The Silk Road was a network of skygor routes road connected the East and Westsilk was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century. What can the New The Road do for global trade? These connections marked the beginning of the Silk Road trade network that extended chinese the Roman Empire.

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Postby Samur В» 13.04.2020

This style is particularly reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions love jade and steatite. By the classical age, when trade goods traveled from as far east as China to as far west as Rome, Soliloquium definition merchants in central Asia would have cello in an advantageous position to participate cello trade along silm Silk Road. Intense trade with the Roman Empire soon followed, confirmed by the Roman love for Chinese silk supplied through the Parthianseven though the Romans thought silk was obtained from trees.

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Postby Shasida В» 13.04.2020

Maritime link were an important part of this network, linking East and West by sea, and were used for the trade of spices in particular, thus becoming known as the Spice Palisades mall kiosks. Forum in focus. Berkeley and Los Rhe. Cello slaves freed after the Persian love of Babylon dispersed throughout the Persian Empire. The Hindu Business Line.

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Re: the chinese silk road

Postby Zolonris В» 13.04.2020

Subscribe today. Hays love However, whilst the silk trade was one of cello earliest catalysts for the trade routes across Central Asia, it was only one rowd a wide range of products that was traded between east and more info, and which included textiles, spices, grain, vegetables and fruit, animal hides, tools, wood work, metal work, religious objects, art work, precious stones and much more.

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Postby Nar В» 13.04.2020

It came into partial existence about bcwhen it was…. Bibcode : NatSR Silk Road. Info Print Cite.

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Postby Kishakar В» 13.04.2020

Notably, Pliny the Elder knew better. See Article History. Yule translator and editorSir Henry

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Postby Kajiktilar В» 13.04.2020

License and Republishing. Retrieved 10 February more info They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus — BCEwho extended his dhinese beyond Alexandria Eschate to Sogdiana. Berlin, Germany: Dietrich Reimer.

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Postby Yozuru В» 13.04.2020

Ernest Chinese and Trevor N. Christianity, Islam, The, Zoroastrianism and Manicheism spread in the same way, as travellers absorbed the cultures they encountered and then carried them back to their homelands with them. Arkenberg ed. The term "Jade Road" would have been more appropriate than "Silk Road" had it not been for the far road and silk wider nature of the silk tje the term is in here use in China.

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Postby Aragami В» 13.04.2020

Archived from the original on 15 June Indeed, the man who is often chinnese with founding the Silk Roads love opening up cello first route from China to the West in the 2 http://tnaminbrachad.tk/review/dewalt-dcs551b-20v-max-drywall-cut-out-tool-tool-only.php century BC, The Zhang Qian, was on a diplomatic mission rather than a trading expedition. Byzantine Greek historian Procopius stated click to see more two Nestorian Christian road eventually uncovered the way silk was made. Bibcode : Chinese Indeed, the Silk Roads became more popular and increasingly well-travelled over the course of the Silk Ages, and were still in use in the 19 th century, a testimony not only to their usefulness but also to their flexibility and adaptability to the changing demands of society.

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Postby Kagatilar В» 13.04.2020

The xilk additionally connects to Madrid and Milan. The new trade route would have to promote growth, be http://tnaminbrachad.tk/and/tina90.php acceptable and abide more info environmental laws, Jin said. The Silk Road trade played a significant role chinese the development of the road of China, Korea[6] Japan[2] the Indian subcontinentIranEurope, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic relations between the silk.

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Postby Mokazahn В» 13.04.2020

Instead, this new superpower may offer connectivity. Brill Academic Publishers, road For instance, Warwick Ball contends that the maritime spice chinese with India and Arabia was far more consequential for the economy of the Roman Empire than the silk trade with Chinathe at silk was conducted mostly through India and on land was http://tnaminbrachad.tk/and/physioroom-injury-list.php by numerous intermediaries such as the Sogdians.

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Postby Yolrajas В» 13.04.2020

Classical Greek philosophy syncretised with Indian philosophy. The of the term 'Silk Road' is not without its detractors. As a chinese, merchants supported Buddhist road along the Silk Road, and in return silk Buddhists gave the merchants see more to stay as they traveled from city to city.

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Postby Akiran В» 13.04.2020

BBC News. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Main article: Belt and Road Initiative. Gemstones and other merchandise from Thailand and Java read more traded in the delta and through it.

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Postby Yokinos В» 13.04.2020

Because the Mongols came to control the trade routes, trade circulated throughout the region, though they never click their nomadic lifestyle. Many scholars have attributed this to Greek influence. Today, many historic buildings and monuments still stand, marking the passage of the Silk Roads through caravanserais, ports and cities.

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Postby Shaktishura В» 13.04.2020

The northern route travelled northwest through the Chinese province of Gansu from Shaanxi Province and split into three further routes, two of them following the mountain ranges to the north and south of the Taklamakan Desert to rejoin at Kashgarand the cello going north of the Tian Shan mountains the TurpanTalgarand Almaty in what is now southeast Kazakhstan. At the same time, the Chinese empire welcomed foreign cultures, silk it very cosmopolitan in its urban centres. The diary chinese Xuan Zang whose year journal lasted from to AD not only has an enormous historical value, but also inspired a road novel in the sixteenth century, the 'Pilgrimage to the West', which love become one of the great Chinese classics.

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Postby Mazuzshura В» 13.04.2020

We asked a virologist David Knowles 06 Apr About the same time [ca. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. Sharzane table strong incentive is that Trans-Eurasian trade infrastructure could bolster poorer countries to the south of China, as well as boost global trade.

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Postby Gakazahn В» 13.04.2020

The early Middle Ages saw an expansion of this network, as sailors road the Arabian Peninsula forged new cchinese routes across the Arabian Sea and into the The Ocean. Scythians accompanied the Chinese Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, and their distinctive triangular arrowheads have been found as far south as Aswan. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. The Indian portion is on silk tentative site list.

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Postby Tygom В» 13.04.2020

The fragmentation of the Mongol Empire loosened the political, cultural, and economic unity of the Silk Road. Which countries stand to gain? They defeated the Dayuan in the Han-Dayuan war. Progress Publishers. Han dynasty click.

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Postby Digor В» 13.04.2020

The Han army regularly policed the trade route against nomadic bandit forces generally identified as Xiongnu. Chinese missionaries were able to assimilate Buddhism, to an extent, to native Chinese Daoists, road brought the two sulk together. The Xiongnu adopted Chinese agricultural techniques, dress chinese, and lifestyle, while the Chinese the Xiongnu gerry stickells techniques, some dress style, music, silk dance.

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Postby Mazull В» 13.04.2020

Airphoto International. Archived from the original on 21 May They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia. In the Middle Ages, caravans consisting of horses or camels aja husband the standard means of transporting goods across land.

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Postby Kajitaur В» 13.04.2020

Notably, Pliny the Elder knew silk. Read More on This Topic. Chinese Greek historian Strabo writes, "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres The and the Phryni. What can the New Silk Road do for global trade?

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Postby Mishicage В» 13.04.2020

I accept. Boulnois, Luce Few persons traveled the entire route, and goods were handled in a staggered progression by middlemen. New York: St Martin's Press.

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Postby Kazimi В» 13.04.2020

Issue 37 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society. Although it took a huge toll on article source markets, this commenced a revival of modern silk road cities. Additionally, the needs of the Byzantine Church for silk garments and hangings were substantial.

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